4 Defining Backup Policies

In this section, you will learn how to build the foundations for your backup and recovery management program.

The backbone of the N2WS solution is the backup policy. A backup policy defines everything about a logical group of backed-up objects. A policy defines:

  • What will be backed up - Backup Targets.

  • How many generations of backup data to keep.

  • When to back up – Schedules.

  • Whether to use backup scripts.

  • Whether VSS is activated (Windows Servers 2008, 2012, 2016, and 2019 only).

  • Whether backup is performed via a backup agent (Windows only).

  • The retry policy in case of failure.

  • DR settings for the policy.

  • Lifecycle events: Number of backup generations, Copy to Storage Repository (S3 and Azure Storage Account), Transition to Cold Storage (Glacier)

The following sections explain the stages for defining an N2WS policy and its schedule. Schedule definition is addressed first as it one of the attributes of a policy and Scheduled Reports.

For Azure account and policy definition, backup and recovery, see section 26.

4.1 Schedules

Schedules are the objects defining when to perform a backup

  • Schedules are defined separately from policies and Scheduled Reports.

  • One or more schedules can be assigned to both policies and Scheduled Reports.

Schedules can be managed in the Schedules tab found in the left panel. They can be added also during the creation of a new Policy.

Or, added when creating a new scheduled report in the Scheduled Reports tab of the Reports tab in the left panel.

Both interfaces include all defined schedules and the same definition options.

You can define schedules to:

  • Run for the first time at a date and time in the future.

  • Run forever or have a specific date and time to stop.

  • Repeat every ‘n’ minutes, hours, days, weeks, months.

  • Selectively enable for certain minutes, hours, and days of the week, but not for weeks and months.

  • Repeat every day of the week, or only run on certain days.

  • Exclude running a report or policy during certain time ranges within the scheduled times.

For the root/admin user, if you have created additional managed users, you can select the user to whom the schedule belongs.

For weekly or monthly backups and report generation, the start time will determine the day of the week of the schedule and not the days of week checkboxes.

4.1.1 Defining Schedules

The same schedule can be used in all of the following:

  • Policy backup operations.

  • Recovery Scenarios for policies with schedules.

  • Generating Scheduled Reports.

You can add a schedule from several places:

All start times are derived from the First Run time. The time set in First Run becomes the regular start time for the defined schedule.

To define a schedule:

  1. Type a name for the schedule and an optional description.

    1. If you want a daily backup to run at 10:00 AM, set Repeats Every to one day and the start time to 10:00 AM.

    2. If you want an hourly backup to run at 17 minutes after the hour, set Repeats Every to one hour and First Run to nn:17, where nn is the hour of the First Run.

  2. If this schedule expires, turn on the Expires toggle and select the date and time the schedule ends. By default, schedules never expire.

  3. In the Repeats Every list, select the frequency of the backups for this schedule. The possible units are months, weeks, days, hours, and minutes.

  4. In the Enabled On section, select the day-of-week checkboxes on which to run the schedule.

  5. To exclude time ranges within the defined schedule, turn on the Exclude Time Ranges toggle. See section 4.1.4.

  6. Select Save.

4.1.2 Overriding Schedules

You can override existing schedules and run backups and Scheduled Reports immediately:

4.1.3 Scheduling and Time Zones

When you configure an N2WS server, its time zone is set. See section 2.3. In the N2WS management application, all time values are in the time zone of the N2WS server. Schedule times, however, may be set and executed according to a specific time zone. A policy’s Backup Times will be according to the time zone.

Even when you are backing up instances that are in different time zones, the backup time that is shown on the monitor and Backup Log is always according to the N2WS server’s local time.

In the N2WS database, times are saved in UTC time zone (Greenwich). So, if, at a later stage, you start a new N2WS server instance, configure it to a different time zone, and use the same CPM data volume as before, it will still perform backup at the same times as before.

4.1.4 Disabled Times

While or after defining a schedule, you can set specific times when the schedule should not start a backup or generate a Scheduled Report. For example, you want a backup or report to run every hour, but not on Tuesdays between 01:00 PM and 3:00 PM. You can define that on Tuesdays, between these hours, the schedule is disabled.

You can define a disabled time where the finish time is earlier than the start time. The meaning of disabling the schedule on Monday between 17:00 and 8:00 is that it will be disabled every Monday at 17:00 until the next day at 8:00. The meaning of disabling the schedule for All days between 18:00 and 6:00 will be that every day the schedule will be disabled after 18:00 until 6:00.

Be careful not to create contradictions within a schedule’s definition:

  • It is possible to define a schedule that will never start backups or generate a report.

  • You can define a weekly schedule which runs on Mondays, and then deselect Monday from the weekdays.

  • It is also possible to create different “disabled times”, which would effectively mean that the schedule is always disabled. Defining Disabled Times

For each schedule, you can define as many excluded time ranges as you need.

To define disabled times:

  1. In the New Schedule screen, turn on the Exclude Time Ranges toggle.

  2. In the Day list, select a day of the week to exclude from the schedule.

  3. Select the checkboxes of the excluded time ranges to enable, and then select Save.

4.2 AWS Policies

Policies are the main objects defining backups. A policy defines:

  • What to back up

  • How to back it up

  • When to perform the backup by assigning schedules to the policy

Policy definitions are spread among the following tabs:

  • Policy Details – Basic policy details: name, user, account, enabled, schedules, auto-target removal, backup generations, and description

  • Backup Targets – Choose and configure backup targets. Application consistency is applied at the instance level.

  • More Options – Backup options, such as activate Linux backup scripts, define successful backup, retry parameters, and number of failures to trigger an alert

  • DR – Enable DR

  • Lifecycle Management – Configure Lifecycle operations, including the number of backup generations, Copy to Storage Repository (S3 and Azure Storage Account), and Transition to Cold Storage (Glacier).

A policy named cpmdata must exist for backing up Windows instances and the N2WS server, DR, and Copy to S3. For the cpmdata policy, the relevant tabs are Policy Details and DR.

4.2.1 Creating an AWS Policy

The cpmdata policy does not use scripts as the default. Users can enable application-consistent scripts for cpm data by selecting Application Consistent for the cpmdata policy in the Policy Details tab.

To define a new policy:

  1. In the left panel, select Policies.

  2. In the Name box, type a name for the policy.

  3. For the root/admin user, if you have created additional managed users, select the policy owner in the User box.

  4. If you have more than one account, in the Account list, select the account that the policy is associated with. The account cannot be modified after the policy has been created.

  5. Select Enabled to use the Copy to Storage functionality.

  6. In the Auto Target Removal list, specify whether to automatically remove resources that no longer exist. If you enable this removal, if an instance is terminated, or an EBS volume deleted, the next backup will detect that and remove it from the policy. Choose yes and alert if you want the backup log to include a warning about such removal.

  7. To use application-consistent scripts as the default for CPM data, in the cpmdata policy, select Application Consistent.

  8. In the Description box, optionally type a description.

  9. To add Backup Targets now, select the Backup Targets tab. See section 4.2.2. The policy will be saved when you save the Backup Targets definition.

4.2.2 Adding AWS Backup Targets

Backup targets define what a policy is going to back up. You define backup targets by selecting the Backup Targets tab of the Create Policy screen.

Following are the types of backup targets:

  • Instances – This is the most common type. You can choose as many instances as you wish for a policy up to your license limit. For each instance, allowed under your license, define:

    • Whether to back up all its attached volumes, some, or none.

    • Whether to take snapshots (default for Linux), take snapshots with one initial AMI (default for Windows), or just create AMIs.

    See section 4.2.3.

  • EBS Volumes – If you wish to back up volumes, not depending on the instance they are attached to, you can choose volumes directly. This can be useful for backing up volumes that may be detached part of the time or moved around between instances (e.g., cluster volumes).

  • RDS Databases – You can use N2WS to back up RDS databases using snapshots. There are advantages to using the automatic backup AWS offers. However, if you need to use snapshots to back up RDS, or if you need to back up databases in sync with instances, this option may be useful.

  • Aurora Clusters – Even though Aurora is part of the RDS service, Aurora is defined in clusters rather than in instances. Use this type of backup target for your Aurora clusters and Aurora Serverless.

    • Aurora cluster storage is calculated in increments of 10 GiB with the respect to the license. For example, if you have over 10 GiB of data but less than 20 GiB, your data is computed as 20 GiB.

    • Keep in mind that clusters can grow dynamically and may reach the storage limits of your license. If the total storage is approaching your license limit, N2WS will issue a warning.

    • For Aurora Serverless, capacity units will appear in the Class column when adding RDS Clusters as Backup Targets.

  • Redshift Clusters – You can use N2WS to back up Redshift clusters. Similar to RDS, there is an automatic backup function available, but using snapshots can give an extra layer of protection.

License capacity metrics for Redshift are only updated if the cluster is in an 'available' state. Use Amazon CloudWatch metrics.

  • DynamoDB Tables – You can use N2WS to back up DynamoDB tables. The recommended best practice is a backup limit of 10 DynamoDB tables per policy.

    • When defining your backup targets, keep in mind that DynamoDB table storage is calculated in increments of 10 GiB with the respect to the license. For example, if you have over 10 GiB of data but less than 20 GiB, your data is computed as 20 GiB.

    • Tables can grow dynamically and may reach the storage limits of your license. If the total storage is approaching your license limit, N2WS will issue a warning.

  • Elastic File Systems (EFS) – You can use N2WS to back up and restore your EFS snapshot data to AWS using AWS Backup service. Configuration options include backup vault, IAM role, transition to cold storage, and expiration.

  • FSx File Systems – Use N2WS to back up and restore your FSx File Systems to the same region and the same account. Following are the FSx types:

    • Lustre (Linux) file system

    • Windows file system with managed Active Directory (Win-AD)

    • Windows file system with self-managed Active Directory (Win-SMAD)

    • NetApp ONTAP file system

    • OpenZFS Cloud file system, backup of all volumes using AWS service

    For AWS FSx backup limitations, see section 4.2.7.

    For recovery options, see section 10.11.

    Also, see https://aws.amazon.com/fsx.

  • S3 Bucket Sync – You can use N2WS to synchronize a source S3 bucket to a destination bucket. Since a snapshot is not created, there is no recovery or movement to the Freezer. The buckets require configuration. See section 9.8.

In the Add Backup Targets drop-down menu, select the relevant resource type. A window containing a list of the available resources for the selected type and region opens. To view additional columns and rows, move the scroll bars as needed.

When adding backup targets of the resource type to the policy:

  • You will see all the backup targets of the requested type that reside in the current region, except the ones already in the policy.

  • You can select targets in another region by choosing from the region drop-down list.

  • If there are many targets, you can:

    • Sort by a column by selecting its heading. Select it again to change the sort direction.

    • Scroll between pages.

  • For each backup target, the Policies column shows the policy, or the number of policies, the target is already in. Select the link to see which policies the target is in.

To add a backup target to the policy:

  1. Select a region in the drop-down list. The resources in the selected region are shown.

  2. Select the checkbox of the desired target resources.

  3. Select Add selected. The selected objects are added to the policy’s backup target list.

  4. Repeat as many times as needed, from multiple regions if relevant.

  5. Select Close when finished. The selected targets are listed in the Backup Targets tab.

  6. In the Backup Targets screen, select Save to save the listed selections to the policy.

4.2.3 Instance Configuration

With N2WS you can now create multi-volume snapshots, which are point-in-time snapshots for all EBS volumes attached to a single EC2 instance. After it's created, a multi-volume snapshot behaves like any other snapshot. You can perform all operations, such as restore, delete, and copy across Regions and Accounts. After creating your snapshots, they appear in your EC2 console created at the exact point-in-time.

In the case of EC2 instances, you can set options for any instance.

By default, Copy to S3 is performed incrementally. To ensure the correctness of your data, you can force a copy of the full data for a single iteration to your S3 Repository. While defining the Backup Targets for a policy with Copy to S3, select Force a single full copy to S3.

To configure an instance:

  1. Select a policy, select the Backup Targets tab, and then select an instance.

  2. In the Which Volumes list, choose whether to back up All Volumes attached to this instance, or include or exclude some of them. By default, N2WS will back up all the attached storage of the instance, including volumes that are added over time.

  3. If All Volumes is selected, the Remote Agent list is enabled. Select N2WS Think Backup Agent or Simple System Manager (SSM) depending on what you have configured. See section 6.

  4. If All Volumes was not selected, in the volumes table, clear or select the volume checkboxes.

  5. In the Backup Options list, select one of the following:

    1. Snapshots Only - Default for Linux-based instances.

    2. Snapshots with Initial AMI - Take an initial AMI and then snapshots. Default for Windows-based instances.

    3. AMIs Only - Just schedule AMI creation. If a reboot is required after the backup, select Reboot. See section

  6. When Copy to S3 is enabled for the policy, to have a full copy of the data copied to your S3 Repository, select Force a single full copy to S3.

  7. Select Apply.

  8. Continue to add instances from other regions, and select Close when finished with the resource type. Control returns to the Backup Targets tab list.

  9. At the bottom of the Backup Targets tab list, select Save to update the policy for all listed targets. AMI Creation

If you choose to just create AMIs:

  • N2WS will create AMIs for that instance instead of taking direct snapshots. App-aware backup per agent does not apply for AMI creation.

  • You can choose whether to reboot the instance during AMI creation or not to reboot, which leaves a risk of data corruption. As opposed to AMI creation in the EC2 console, the default in N2WS is no reboot.

Try not to schedule AMI creations of an instance in one policy, while another policy running at the same time backs up the same instance using snapshots. This will cause the AMI creation to fail. N2WS will overcome this issue by scheduling a retry, which will usually succeed. However, N2WS recommends that you avoid such scheduling conflicts. Initial/Single AMI

Single or Initial AMIs are meant to be used mainly for Windows instance recovery.

  • N2WS will keep a single AMI for each instance with this setting. A single AMI will contain only the root device (boot disk).

  • N2WS will rotate single AMIs from time to time. It will create a new AMI and delete the old one. N2WS aims to optimize costs by not leaving very old snapshots in your AWS account. Limitations with AMI creation

AMIs will be copied across regions and accounts for DR.

If you use cross-account backup, be aware that if you need to recover the instance at the remote account, you need to make sure you have an AMI ready in that account.

4.2.4 More Options

To see more policy options, select the More Options tab for a policy in the Policies tab. The options consist of:

  • Activating Linux backup scripts and defining script timeout and output

  • Defining backup success, retries, and failures for alerting

Backup scripts refer to those running on the N2WS server. See section 7.2.

  • Activate Linux Backup Scripts – This option is turned off by default. If you select Activate Linux Backup Scripts, the following options appear:

    • Scripts Timeout – Timeout (in seconds) to let each script run. When a backup script runs, after the timeout period, it will be killed, and a failure will be assumed. The default is 30 seconds.

    • Collect Scripts Output – N2WS can collect the output of backup scripts to the standard error (stderr). This may be useful for debugging. It can also be used by a script to log the operations it is performing and write useful information. This output is captured, saved in the N2WS database, and can be viewed from the Recovery Panel screen. To turn this option on, choose Collect. The default option is Ignore.

The output of a script is typically a few lines. However, if it gets really big (MBs), it can affect the performance of N2WS. If it gets even larger, it can cause crashes in N2WS processes. To avoid the risk of too much data going to stderr, redirect the output elsewhere.

  • Backup Successful when - This indicates whether a backup needs its scripts/VSS to complete, to be considered a valid backup. This has a double effect:

    • For retries, a successful backup will not result in a retry;

    • For the automatic retention management process, a backup that is considered successful is counted as a valid generation of data.

    The possible values are:

    • Success Without Any Issues – If scripts and/or VSS are defined for this policy, the backup will be considered successful only if everything succeeds. If backup scripts or VSS fails and all snapshots succeed, the backup is not considered successful. You can still recover from it, but it will cause a retry (if any are defined), and the automatic retention management process will not count it as a valid generation of data. This is the stricter option and is also the default.

    • Snapshot Succeeded with Possible VSS or Script Failure – This is the less strict option and can be useful if scripts or VSS fail often, which can happen in a complex environment. Choosing this option accepts the assumption that most applications will recover correctly even from a crash-consistent backup.

  • Retry information - The next three options deal with what to do when a backup fails:

    • Number of Retries – The maximal number of retries that can be run for each failed backup. The default is three. After the retries, the backup will run again at the next scheduled time.

    • Wait Between Retries (minutes) – Determines how much time N2WS will wait after a failure before retrying. Backup scripts and VSS may sometimes fail or timeout because the system is busy. In this case, it makes sense to substantially extend the waiting time until the next retry when the system may be more responsive.

    • Failures to Trigger Alert – The minimum number of failures to trigger an alert.

    • Backup Timeout (hours) - Select the backup timeout period for this policy. Restarting Apache is not necessary.

  • Custom Tags - You can add custom tags for the policy. Define the Tag Name and Tag Value. if the Name and/or Value is a prefix, select Name is Prefix. For details about Custom Tags, see section 14.2.

4.2.5 Enabling Disaster Recovery

To enable Disaster Recovery for the policy:

  1. Select the DR tab for a policy in the Policies tab screen.

  2. Select Enable DR.

  3. Select the DR Frequency for backups, DR Backup Timeout, and Target Regions.

  4. To enable Cross Account DR Backups, select the checkbox, and:

    1. Choose the To Account and DR Account Target Regions in the lists.

    2. To Keep Original Snapshots, select the checkbox.

4.2.6 Managing Lifecycles

The Lifecycle Management tab for a policy allows you to do the following:

  • Set retention policy for snapshots: Keep n Backup Generations (original snapshots).

  • Use Storage Repository – Enable, set copy and retention policies, choose storage options, and optionally delete backup snapshots after a backup to S3. See section 21.3.

  • Transition to Cold Storage - Enable, set copy and retention policies, and choose the Glacier Archive Storage Class. See section 21.5.3.

Transition to Cold Storage requires that the Use Storage Repository option is enabled first.

  • Storage settings - Enable the Use Storage Repository, define the Target repository, and Transition to Cold Storage, if relevant. See section 21.3.1.

4.2.7 FSx for NetApp ONTAP

FSx for NetApp ONTAP can be configured to back up only part of volumes, for example an EC2 instance, regardless of the owner Storage Virtual Machine (SVM).

The root volume of the SVM is not backed up.

To configure a file system:

  1. Select a policy and then select the Backup Targets tab.

  2. In the Add Backup Targets menu, select FSx File Systems.

  3. Select an ONTAP policy.

5. In the Which Volumes list, choose whether to back up All Volumes attached to this instance, or include or exclude individual volumes.

6. Select Apply and then Save.

A remote agent is not required.

4.2.8 AWS Backup Limitations to FSx

FSx is not currently supported in AWS GovCloud (US) regions.

Following are limitations on backups of FSx for Lustre:

  • Backups are not supported on scratch file systems because these file systems are designed for temporary storage and shorter-term processing of data.

  • Backups are not supported on file systems linked to an Amazon S3 bucket because the S3 bucket serves as the primary data repository, and the Lustre file system does not necessarily contain the full data set at any given time. For further information, see https://docs.aws.amazon.com/fsx/latest/LustreGuide/using-backups-fsx.html

4.3 Managing Policies

The following actions are available for both AWS and Azure policies.

4.3.1 Viewing Policy Backup Times

Backup Times are relevant to the schedules of the selected policy.

4.3.2 Running an Ad Hoc Backup

An ad hoc backup will execute the selected Policy and create backups of all its targets.

An ad hoc backup counts as another generation if it completes successfully.

To run a backup immediately:

  1. In the left panel, select the Policies tab and then select a policy in the list.

To delete a particular snapshot in AWS or to delete all AWS snapshots after a successful run:

  1. Select one or more backups, and then select Delete.

4.3.3 Deleting a Policy

When deleting a policy, all related snapshots and data are deleted.

To delete a policy, select it in the Policies table, and then select Delete. In the Delete Policy confirmation dialog box, type ‘delete all’ and then select Delete.

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